Tuesday, 30 July 2013

Having your say in The Queensland Plan

Sponsored by Nuffnang

I’m quite embarrassed to say that I wasn’t aware of The Queensland Plan to create a 30 year vision for the state until I was approached to write this post…

Clearly I’m a part of the Queensland population who generally tunes out or flicks over the newspaper, preferring to read Hagar comics and the movie reviews instead!

Yes, a most vacuous life I enjoy!

But a 30 year plan, where we are canvassed our opinions, is not something to ignore. I’m all for giving my two cents worth and if enough people, like you and me, wrote in with their ideas and vision, perhaps the future will look brighter.

The aim of The Queensland Plan is that it will be created by Queenslanders, for Queensland. It will go beyond politics and personal priorities; to be a genuine reflection of our collective aspirations and priorities for the future.

One of the questions is about sustainable landscapes: How do we strengthen our economic future and achieve sustainable landscapes?

Obviously there is no right or wrong answer… but for me, in 30 years time, when I am a sprightly 70-year-old, I would like to see the preservation and conservation of not only our national parks and forests but also our urban landscapes as well.

I don’t think there is enough done to save many of our historical buildings (that includes mid-century and post modern), which is a shame for our future generations. I’m from the school of thought that we will never appreciate our future if we don’t appreciate and know our past.

Many of the great cities and states in the world do a booming trade on the fact that they have a story to tell with their architecture. Why can’t Queensland do the same with its interesting sub-tropical flavoured urban landscape?

What is your take on this question? It could be about water quality, protecting nature corridors or investing in energy efficient bio-fuels… I’d love to hear your thoughts because I will then collate your responses and complete the survey as a reader collective.

Are you in?

If you would like to contribute to the responses, please add yourcomments below. Just remember to keep your views apolitical because it will be wasted in this particular forum.

p.s. if you don’t want to air your views so publicly you can just go toThe Queensland Plan here and fill it out online. I’m getting my eldest son to fill one out – he’ll be 41 in 2043 and hopefully living a goodquality life in Queensland.

* This blog topic was commissioned by the Queensland Government to raise awareness of The Queensland Plan. Content and ideas are entirely the author’s own.

Monday, 29 July 2013

Hans Wegner daybed

Overjoyed is the only word I can use to describe today's delivery. We finally bought a new sofa for the lounge-room and it is just fabulous. I kind of feel like we don't deserve to have such a lovely piece!

It is a 1957 Hans Wegner oak daybed from the lovely people at Dansk Vintage and it is the one which I wrote about in this post.

It was in unrestored condition when I first saw it, but James from Dansk Vintage restored the piece beautifully and helped me pick a new fabric, as the original fabric sadly needed replacing.

Vella Brothers Upholstery in Salisbury did a lovely job with the upholstery too. It is called Warwick Beachcomber, which is a hard wearing textile suitable for our all-boy (except for me) household!

Our new daybed is perfect for our lounge room - comfortable and a nice size without being overly heavy or bulky.

Here are some shots of the newly restored Danish piece in the Sow's Ear:

Hans Wegner daybed
Some rearranging of furniture is occurring...I've moved our DQF viking chairs from the sun room to lounge room 

In this shot you can see the simple modernist angles of the daybed 

The day bed can be used for overnight guests. The back rest opens up to reveal a mattress. You are also able to store pillows and bedding in the space when the backrest is down.
Many thanks to Dansk Vintage and Vella Upholstery for a job well done. Also, many thanks to Mr D and his buddy Jimmy who very kindly became furniture removalists on their smoko this morning. Thanks a million.

Friday, 26 July 2013

Isn’t dish washing your job?

Sponsored by Reckitts Benckiser

A few months ago I asked Son #1 to put some dirty plates in the dishwasher.  His response was along the lines of, ‘Isn’t dish washing your job? You know… you’re the mum around here.’

Well, let me tell you, that child got the ear-bashing of his life. Spilling from my mouth were phrases like: who do you think you are; where did you get this highly-developed sense of entitlement; and I’ll show you who’s mum around here…

The cheek! I should have filled the sink with suds and made him do the dishes by hand if he thought he was hardly done by.

Actually I should have just said, ‘No, son. That’s your father’s job or it was, until we got the dishwasher!’

I don’t want him to grow up with that attitude of domestic duties being only for females. I’m not even sure how he would even think that way, especially as Jason does take on quite a few domestic chores at the Sow’s Ear?

One of Jason’s many shirtless domestic duties is hand washing the larger pots and trays and then making sure the dishwasher has a Finish tablet in it before switching it on.

Anyway, I was pretty cranky with Son #1. The man-child has never known a life BD (before dishwasher), where a sink load of washing up and a drainer full of drying up was the nightly ritual. Not that I really want to go back to that time because hand washing dishes is a time suck. Life AD (after dishwasher) is so much better.

Our older boys now have to pack and unpack the dishwasher as a daily chore, to teach them they can’t be lazy gits and that it’s men’s work. It is also an easy task they can take on at a young age.

Fisher & Paykel Dishdrawer Dishwasher series

Speaking of easy tasks, I still like the cool Fisher & Paykel DishDrawer dishwasher series. I was told the definition of luxury is the absence of difficulties, so those DishDrawer dishwashers seem very luxurious to me.

They’re a great option for smaller kitchens and apartment living, where space is at a premium – there’s no excuse to go without a dishwasher in small spaces. The DishDrawer dishwasher requires less movement to open, load and close and you don’t even need to bend. Fisher & Paykel are trying to make dish washing even easier by increasing the height of the drawer to al­low for even larger plates and platters.  

I wonder if we had one of those, whether I’d still get resistance from the boys about dish washer duty... 

So, do you agree that dish washing ought to be men’s work?

Thursday, 25 July 2013

New acquisitions - Sibley lithograph and more iittala crystal

I have to say that when I go out and about fossicking for mid-century goodies (iittala or any Scandinavian crystal is my poison) you really don't find much. I always have my eyes peeled for furniture too...just in case I stumble upon something like...

The other day while I was filling in an hour before school pick-up (as is my weekly habit), I stumbled upon a framed lithograph which caught my eye. I looked at the signature which read Sibley. The only artist I know of with the name Sibley is Andrew Sibley who is a renowned Australian artist, except in the Lifeline Supastore. You can read a little about him here, if you are interested.

I took a punt and bought it and have found out through a friend that yes, it is indeed an Andrew Sibley and details about this particular lithograph can be found here. Yay! I'm glad I found it. There will be some rearranging of the art on the walls over the weekend I suspect...

Andrew Sibley 1990 Lithograph The Inner Garden
And in other exciting news my iittala Festivos are breeding. A new six ring Festivo has made its way to the Sow's Ear from Shop 88 in the Woolloongabba Antiques Centre. I was looking for a tall one to complete the cluster, so I am very happy about this particular purchase.

In the centre of the table (image below) there is also an iittala Ultima Thule glass platter designed by Tapio Wirkkala, which I found recently. I've never seen the glass plates before and of course it came to a welcoming home.

iittala Festivo candle holders

It might be time that I clean out some of my cupboards to swap out old crockery and glassware with my new acquisitions...again!

Have you had much luck in your thrifty endeavours?

Tuesday, 23 July 2013

Campbell's Soup tins

To say I'm not a huge fan of tinned soup would be an incredible understatement...but it didn't stop me from adding four Campbell's limited edition tomato soup tins to my grocery trolley the other week.

So, I'm a sucker for Warhol and retro packaging!

Campbell's limited edition art tins

We've only eaten one tin. I made the kids eat it one night when I wasn't bothered cooking.

You have to take your hat off to the people who thought to package these tins as limited edition pieces, because there is no way in the world I would've bought them otherwise. I am officially a wanker!

Now, what to do with these colourful tins. Unfortunately, my idea for using them as herb planters was quite flawed. The paper labels won't last the distance, so I will have to rethink  how to use them.

Some people are using them as vases, pencil holders and tea light candle holders... I'm thinking of peeling off the labels and making some sort of art piece. I have a vision of getting my pop art mojo on. I'll show you what I come up with when it is done...after we get through all the soup!

Did you guys buy the tins too. And what are you planning on doing with yours?

Saturday, 20 July 2013

Bitossi lamp

It was swaddled in butcher's paper and placed gently into my arms to take home...like a newborn. I carefully strapped it into the booster seat in the car to make sure it was safe on the journey home. It didn't even cry.

Yes, we have a new addition to the family. A Bitossi table lamp.

When I spotted the lamp at the Paddington Antiques Centre last week, I knew I loved it...particularly as there was a gift voucher for the antiques centre (a birthday gifts, thanks V & G!) burning a hole in my pocket...

Paddington Antiques is a great place for fossicking - I first discovered Dansk Vintage when they used to have a presence there and it was always worth checking out if you liked your furniture mid-century and Danish.

Another new favourite is Shop 28, it's the one with all the vintage lights, run by a very friendly fellow called Keith. Keith confided in me that he has a penchant for collecting Corningware Casserole dishes (y'know the ones with the little blue flower) and I instantly liked him.

His stall is pretty awesome if you are looking for interesting or vintage lighting. There was quite a bit of Art Deco and funky retro style lights...great if you're trying to restore an old home or are re-decorating in a particular style.

My Bitossi lamp with a rather unsuitable light shade. I let Keith keep the shade.
Shop 28 in Paddington Antiques Centre. Lots to choose from!

I took a photo of this pendant light as my parents have the exact same one in their home.
They'll laugh when they see their light in an antiques centre!
Now that I have my new lamp, I have to find a more suitable light shade for it. The one it came with was not to my liking and I left it with Keith.

Most of the new shades which are so fashionable right now are too short and squat...I much prefer tall and slightly tapered and yes, so unfashionable at the moment...which means it will be difficult to source at retail lighting stores.

So now begins a light shade search. Wish me luck.

image from here
This is the style shade that I like

Wednesday, 17 July 2013

Poached Pears in Sauterne

Good news. Jason's sporty little French car is ready to be picked up from the mechanic. What a relief! Life is always a bit glum when Jason has car problems...

On Bastille Day, I prepared some French inspired dishes to cheer up a disillusioned Jason. While the French might not have great cars, you really can't argue about the quality of their food. French food rarely disappoints.

Here is a very simple dessert recipe (from a very old Women's Weekly) which I made after a hearty French lunch of Lamb Bretonne. The dessert was an absolute winner in every respect - Beurre Bosc pears are in season in Australia at the moment and fruit is always a nice end to a big meal. Delicious.

Poached Pears
6 pears (Beurre Bosc)
1/2 cup sauterne (or sweet dessert wine. I used a Tamar Ridge Botrytis Riesling from Tasmania)
1/3 cup water

Mocha Sauce
200g dark chocolate, chopped
300ml thickened cream
2 teaspoons instant coffee powder or a shot of espresso

Poached Pears method:
Peel pears, leaving stem intact. Trim base so pears will stand upright, place pears in large saucepan.
Pour sauterne and water over the pears, bring to the boil. Cover, reduce heat, simmer for 20 minutes or until they are just tender.

Serve hot or cold with sauce.

Mocha Sauce method:
Combine chocolate, cream and coffee in a saucepan, stir constantly over a low hear without boiling until smooth.

Poached pears sauterne with mocha sauce
Bon appetit!

Tuesday, 16 July 2013

Top 5 tips to refresh a room and remove eau d’op-shop smell

Sponsored by Air Wick Australia

The Sow’s Ear has a distinctly musty boy smell to it... that would be because five of its occupants (that’s including the budgie) are male.

Being an 85 year old house with dust floating from the ceilings probably doesn’t help the Sow’s Ear’s freshness cause either, nor does the thrifted vintage furniture. When the Sow’s Ear has been closed up for the day, it smells faintly of eau d’ op-shop!

So here are my top five tips that rid the Sow’s Ear of its uniquely male ’vintagey’ fragrance:

Nothing smells as clean as clean does. You can never underestimate the power of a good vacuum and mop to make things right again. I know you’re going to say, ‘Der, Freddy!’  But the males in the Sow’s Ear would look at me blankly and not put two and two together. This tip would be mainly for their benefit!

Opening up all the doors and windows on a bright sunny day to air out the house is insta-fresh. Again, you would think that was a given, but Son #1 has his bedroom doors and windows permanently shut. The difference that opening up his room makes is almost miraculous - from stale to fresh in the space of one afternoon.

Opened windows and clean linen helps to refresh the boys' room...

There is nothing like faking it with burning a scented candle, which comes in so many different fragrances or even using an air freshener. Lately, I’ve been dabbling in the reed diffuser for the lounge room and I’ve had fun experimenting with all the types you can buy from either the supermarket or boutique home stores.

The reed diffuser is the lounge-room helps our battle against eau d'op-shop!

The kitchen bin is the harbinger of unwanted aromas. We invest in those scented bin liners for the kitchen, not that they can disguise the scent of the things that go in the bin… It does however comfort me that my rubbish has a romantic lavender waft to it. Anyway, again to the boys of the Sow’s Ear…empty the bin, please!

Changing the towels, sheets and cushions is my cheat’s way of refreshing a room when I haven’t had a chance to vacuum and mop.  When you have freshly washed linen and towels, you can bury your nose in that for a while and hope that the love spreads around the room. Ha!

So, those are my tips for a fresher smelling home. Do you have any tips you could add?

Saturday, 13 July 2013

Le quatorze juillet sans Peugeot

With Bastille Day tomorrow, all the Francophiles of Australia will be out en force nibbling their croissants and madly waving the tricolore.

image from here

Jason would naturally be hooning it up in his sporty little Peugeot too...were it not for the fact it was at the mechanics encore for its fourth warranty repair. Oh la la... la la!

That Peugeot RCZ seems to have no sense of timing when it comes to breaking down. Last year, it rudely interrupted our Valentine's Day celebrations which you can read here. This year it is ruining La Fête Nationale for us!

image from here

The car went in for repairs last week after the computerised dashboard screen of death flashed before Jason's eyes...some trouble with the gear box and apparently they are waiting for a part to fly in from France.

Thank Dieu, it is still under warranty as I suspect these parts will be flying in first class when we actually have to pay for the blasted things. And note that I wrote when and not if.

To say that the money he spent on his mid life crisis vehicle would've been better off spent on a real bathroom renovation for the Sow's Ear would be a cruel reminder. And never let it be said that I am not good at jogging someone's memory...poor Jason.

Instead of having a jaunt in the Peugeot wearing our berets at a rakish angle and singing La Marseillaise, we'll be at the Sow's Ear eating our Vegemite sandwiches contemplating how to get rid of the damned car without too many dramas...

Bonne fête mes amis!

Wednesday, 10 July 2013

Dishwasher and kitchen design thoughts

Jason used to be the chief dishwasher of the family, wielding his very own dish mop. But that was back in the dark ages BD. Before Dishwasher.

Someone told us that running a dishwasher saves you the equivalent of three solid weeks every year. That’s a vacation you never knew you had!
When we were planning our kitchen renovation, that fact made Jason’s dishpan hands tap and click with joy. There was no way in this world we were going without a dishwasher – we were going to make one fit…whether we had room for it or not!

But we are so lucky these days, because space is no longer an issue with the new range of dishwashers on the market. We’re not limited by the size of our kitchens and fortunately smaller kitchens don’t need to miss out.

If I had my time again, I would think less traditionally about our choice of dishwasher. We tend to run our dishwasher once a day like it was an event, waiting for it to be full with the day’s dishes before switching it on before we go to bed in the evening.

However, our lifestyle is changing now the children are getting older. We are eating more takeout or Jason is away or we skip lunch…which means the dishwasher is not full enough to do a wash.

It really sucks when we have to retrieve all the coffee and breakfast things to hand wash for the next morning. I sometimes wish we could do smaller loads on the run.

The Fisher & Paykel DishDrawer has the most practical design for doing smaller loads and can squeeze into the tightest of spots. We used a DishDrawer when holidaying in a tiny apartment and it was a breeze to use.

The Sow’s Ear’s kitchen. We have drawers everywhere including under the sink.
image from 
Elizabeth Santillan here 

Having drawers instead of cabinets was one of the best design decisions we made for our kitchen, as it is the most efficient use of the space. A DishDrawer would have been a natural extension of that, especially with the new wider and taller dishwashing models which are now on the market.

I like how the DishDrawer is designed so you don’t need to bend down to fill it up. Pulling out a drawer at waist height makes dishwashing more effortless. It is clever design.

There are lots of ways people are integrating dishwashers into their kitchens to better suit their lifestyle and available space. Pinterest has a plethora of inspiration images of kitchens that are handy when planning a renovation.

The symmetry of side-by-side dishwashers. Image from here

I’m envious of kitchens which have dishwashers installed on both sides of a sink. Great symmetry and so perfect for a narrow galley style kitchen! You can have one running a fast wash, while the other can do the pots – domestic bliss. Ha!

So what do you think about a dishwasher giving us three extra weeks a year? Are you a drawer person or a cabinet person? What do you like or dislike about your dishwasher (machine or person)?

Monday, 8 July 2013

Lost art of common courtesy renovating...

I've got my ranty pants on this evening. The demise of basic common courtesy is my general bug bear at the moment. Why are people so inconsiderate, everywhere you go? From shops to queues to restaurants to school pick-up zones. Everywhere! And it got me thinking about the art of common courtesy when renovating.

One of the things about renovating is that if you are doing anything that may directly affect your neighbours in some way, you should try to keep them informed. It is kind of the unwritten rule.

For us, we think very highly of our neighbours who call in or leave a courtesy note in the letterbox to let you know what is happening, whether they are lopping an overhanging tree or even demolishing a house. When they don't keep you in the loop, you feel let down.

image from here

When our neighbour at the back of the Sow's Ear had to demolish a house, which had been damaged by fire, he left a note in our letterbox explaining what was going to happen and when. He also left his phone number so we could contact him if we had any questions. And you know what, that was enough to keep us happy. The art of courtesy is so simple really.

We've been renovating for four years and we hope we've never done anything that has affected our neighbours adversely. Maybe we have?

Sometimes you are so caught up in your own renovation that you forget how your renovations may be affecting those around you.  I'm always on to Jason about not using power tools too early in the morning...but alas, he has been known to power-up first thing on a Sunday morning in all eagerness to get a project finished!

Is it just me feeling this way about the demise of general common courtesy? Are you guilty of doing some discourteous renovating?

Friday, 5 July 2013

New mouldings in the front entry

We have new bull nose and scotia moulding for around the entry windows.

I probably wouldn't have bothered myself, but Jason is one for finishing things off. A details man, if you like. The fact that the entry was decorated with D mould rather than with something more substantial bothered Jason greatly.

Here's what the entry windows look like now. 

Ha! It's very subtle, isn't it? But it gives us great comfort that it matches the rest of the Sow's Ear.

And below is a picture of the entry with it's old D mould border.

It's the small things people!

Wednesday, 3 July 2013

Front entry windows

For a renovating blog there's not a lot of renovating happening around here at the moment. Jason's been tackling a few smaller projects this winter. They're not major things but the cumulative effect of these jobs finish off the Sow's Ear nicely.

Although we renovated the front entry when we first bought the Sow's Ear, there was one small job that Jason had put on his wish list when the opportunity arose.

That opportunity presented itself when I asked him one lazy morning,"When are you going to get your gear off and do some work around here?"

He got up and put on his King Gees and nail belt. He's totally embraced the work wear look, so the shirtless shots are becoming a rare sight.

The job involved removing some old D mould around the front entry latticed windows and fitting a decorative bull nose and scotia mould. Architectural bling. Jason can't get enough of it.

removing the old D mould from the window

the new mouldings are at Jason's feet.
I 'll show you what it looks like after it is all painted.

Tuesday, 2 July 2013

Interiors house tour of Brisbane's western suburbs

Another MAD house tour is done and dusted.

This year the Australian Modern publishers, Chris and Susan, outdid themselves with a record number of 70 people joining in on all the modernist fun. The tour concentrated on four homes located in the Western suburbs of Brisbane - Toowong, Indooroopilly and Fig Tree Pocket.

The first home on tour was actually a charming 1923 Queenslander nestled in Toowong, a stone's throw from Mount Cootha. It was owned by a lovely artistic woman who so graciously welcomed us into her home. She told us some of the history of the house which has been in her family since it was built. The interior was a tribute to art and all things beautiful, collected over a lifetime. It was warm and inviting and exuded that feeling of home.

(Please excuse my photos which are poor iPhone quality on a wet and very overcast day.)
Front entrance of the 1923 Queenslander

Enclosed verandah.
I think the tiled coffee table is by Milton Moon 
The next home we visited was Jacobi House in Indooroopilly which was designed by iconic Brisbane architectural firm Hayes & Scott in the 1950s. I've already written about this home here if you are interested in reading more. The new owners are steadily restoring the home which was riddled with white ant damage when they acquired it in 2007.

A corner of Jacobi house in the front of the bookcase which partitions the main living area from the bedroom and bathroom.
We also had the pleasure of visiting Etlin House, designed by Hayes & Scott in 1963 and located in Fig Tree Pocket. The owners have made few alterations and have kept the essence of this mid-century home intact. It is also for private sale or rent in the New Year (if it was on my side of town, I'd snap it up instantly). You can email me if you'd like the details.

The owners kept the original cabinetry and updated the kitchen respectfully. Very cool.

One end of the central lounge room in the Hayes & Scott house. The art work is amazing.
The very last home we saw was designed by well-respected Brisbane architect Geoffrey Pie in 2010 for his daughter. We only viewed the ground floor of the two-storey Fig Tree Pocket home. The bottom floor was constructed from concrete and besser blocks. The property is prone to flooding and if ever the big flood happens again everything can be moved to the top floor, while the entire bottom floor can be hosed out in the aftermath.

This home was full to the brim with great art and decor.
exterior shot near the fire pit. Love the Casalas....
After the tour was over, we were all invited to Geoffrey Pie's family home (the adjoining property to his daughter's home) to eat the yummy lunch which was provided on the tour by super Susan. We were told to make ourselves at home and to enjoy, which we did!

His home is an old timber and tin building with wide verandahs. It is the epitome of a family home, much like the feeling of the first house we visited in Toowong. Again, it was full of art, photographs and objects collected over a lifetime...a real home with no pretensions. We were also allowed the privilege to view Geoffrey Pie's studio that contained 50 years of his archived architectural career.

front bedroom with yellow Mexican suzani
A corner of the dining room with Pandoro cake tins made into lamps.
And that concludes the MAD weekend. It was fabulous and I highly recommend anyone who is interested in great mid-century homes and interiors to join us next year! I'll let you know when the next one is scheduled.

Monday, 1 July 2013

What is the collective noun for many caravans?

How do you describe a group of caravans? Is it a troop of caravans? A fleet of caravans? An armada of caravans? A caravan of caravans?

Well, whatever it is I saw a lot of caravans in the middle of suburbia on Saturday night for the Modernist Architecture and Design weekend. Each year (read about last year's here) the Australian Modern publishers, Chris and Susan, host a fun weekend of modernist architectural talks, films and entertainment. MAD!

This year didn't disappoint and the events were full to capacity. When we arrived we were treated to the sight of about eight vintage caravans parked in and around the mid-century homes in Carina. The theme was cool caravans and cocktails.

Some of the caravans (that travelled from as far as NSW) had actors inside doing a series of readings on topics like drive-in movies, the Mix-master and the typical caravan holiday. It was such a delight to sit in the caravans with lots of different people!

The lovely independent publishers of Vintage Caravan Magazine also provided each guest a copy of their mag. Yay!

Modernism and vintage caravans

After cocktails and dinner, we all congregated inside to watch architect Bud Brannigan's slide show presentation about a sympathetic renovation he worked on in St Lucia during the 1990s. The small mid-century home had been designed in the 50s/60s by renowned Brisbane architect Dr Karl Langer

Bud took us on this thoroughly engaging journey of the complete renovation design process. We learnt a little about the original owners who built the home, the sub-tropical designs Karl Langer and landscape architect Arne Fink collaborated on and about the new owners' dilemma of needing more space for a young family. 

The renovation was a fabulous success story with the owners being happy with the end result. And we, as the audience, were feeling all warm and fuzzy...until the last slide when Bud revealed the renovated home was sold a few years later and the new owners demolished the building to construct a project home. 

The full house screamed in collective horror, 'Nooooooo!" 

Such is life.
image from here
The next speaker was Scott MacArthur one of the principal Heritage Architects who worked on the mammoth three year renovation of Brisbane City Hall which was built between 1920 and 1930. What a privilege it was to hear him speak and to view his photographs of the restoration project. Again, it was another engaging talk and although not strictly modernist in nature, it provided an insight into the painstaking job of restoring the heritage listed building. 

I haven't seen the refurbished City Hall yet but I am now going to pay a special trip to see it. The new work looked stunning in Scott's photographs.

image from here
It is always such fun these MAD weekends. In my next post, I'll show you the photos from the interiors house tour that was held yesterday. And if you are keen to know more about the MAD weekends, drop Chris from Australian Modern an email and he can put you on the subscriber list for next year. 
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